Energy crisis

300 CNG stations facing closure

Posted on July 27, 2012. Filed under: Energy crisis, Natural Gas, Pakistan |

ISLAMABAD, July 25: In a bid to put a cap on once robust CNG industry the government has refused to renew the licence of nearly 300 CNG stations, paving way for the closure of all CNG outlets in three years` time.

The Ministry of Petroleum in a written directive, available with Dawn, has stopped Ogra from granting extension/renewal in CNG licences of operational stations on their expiry. CNG licences were granted for the period of 15 years with provision of a five-year extension. The government, however, has decided not to grant any extension to manage the shortfall of gas.

Adviser to Prime Minister on Petroleum and Natural Resources Dr Asim Hussain on July 13 told Senate that due to continuous gas crisis, the CNG stations would be closed down in phased manner.

Well-placed sources aware of the development told Dawn that with this direction of the ministry around 290 CNG stations would be closed down shortly after completing 15 years duration in accordance with Ogra licence.

They said many licenseeshas approached Ogra for grant of renewal in their CNG licences, however, their cases have now been held up by Ogra, adding, `currently 3,337 CNG stations are functioning` They said the ministry of petroleum had now started materialising its three years long policy by putting a ban on CNG business. The adviser verbally directed Ogra not to grant five years renewal/ extension in the existing CNG marketing licences on their expiry date under Rule 7 (2) of Pakistan CNG (Production & Marketing) Rules, 1992 and further advised Director General (Gas) of the MP & NR to issue policy guidelines/ instructions in the matter to Ogra.

The CNG industry was set up in 1997 in Pakistan. It saw a massive boom due to high petroleum prices during the past decade and 3.5 million commercial and private vehicles were converted to CNG.

But Pakistan started experiencing gas shortfall in 2007 which worsened in the following years forcing government to put an end to CNG industry which is estimated to be valuing more than Rs15 trillion.

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Power crisis and policy failures

Posted on August 29, 2011. Filed under: Energy crisis, Pakistan |

IN SPITE of the present government’s many promises, power shortages continue to take a heavy toll on the country’s economy. Why has this problem proven so hard to tackle for the policymakers in Islamabad?

The simple answer to the question is that an effort is still to be made to find a solution that addresses all aspects of the problem: supply and demand sides of the equation, the institutional imperatives for taking care of the shortages, and planning the future so that this problem does not reappear again.

It is not that the present government in particular has failed to develop a coherent strategy for this important sector of the economy. This has happened many times in the past. Pakistan has experienced shortages several times before. Each time the government response was different based on whatever was the thinking at that time not only in Pakistan but also among development experts around the world.

Several aid providing agencies have had a profound impact on the development of the power sector in the country. This process of evolving an approach as the country went from crisis to crisis means the absence of coherence in the way the governments at various times have dealt with the subject of electric power.

The Lahore-based Institute of Public Policy (IPP), carried out a survey of 65 industrial firms operating in various sectors of the economy to develop a better understanding of how electric power shortages were affecting the economy and how various firms were dealing with the problem.

The institute found that power outages averaged at four hours and 36 minutes for the firms surveyed. Those that were affected the most did not need continuous operation while those that could not interrupt the production cycle suffered the least amount of outages. This suggests that an effort was made by the distribution companies to ration the supply of power taking into account needs of the end users.

There were several different types of responses to the outages by the firms surveyed. Some 75 per cent of the sampled firms went for self-generation, not confident that power shortage was a short-term phenomenon. This was a costly solution. The average cost of selfgeneration is estimated at two and a half times the cost of power obtained from the distribution companies. The firms not involved in continuous production made adjustments by changing the hours of operation.

On the whole, the IPP concluded that a significant proportion of the potential losses were recovered through self-generation or adjustments in operations. “For the sample as a whole, the extent of recovery of output is approximately 60 per cent.

Highest recovery rates were observed in the industries which have acquired self-generation capabilities at 85 per cent. Units which are unable to acquire generators lose about 73 per cent of the output.” Extrapolating from the results provided by the sample of industrial units surveyed, the IPP estimated that “the total cost to the economy of power loadshedding in the industrial sector…was equivalent to two per cent of the gross domestic product.” The cost to the economy of the shortages of this important input was because of policy lapses. Those responsible for making public policy had not given enough attention to ensure the regular supply of power by making sufficient investments. For instance, Pakistan has not been able to make up its mind as to which source of power it should depend upon.

Hydro electricity would be far the cheapest source and was the focus of attention by the government at one time. Two massive dams were built, one at Mangla (1,000 MW, inceasing to 1,666 MW after the dam’s height is raised) on the Jhelum and the other at Tarbela (3,478 MW), on the Indus almost half a century ago.

The only significant addition since then was with the construction of the Ghazi Baroda power station (1,450 MW). For political reasons various governments have not been able to proceed with some other mega projects such as the dam and power station at Kalabagh and also on the Indus.

When in the 1990s, the government of the day invited private capital into the generation part of the power sector, it allowed those interested to use natural gas as the fuel. The conventional wisdom at that time was that the country had enough gas available to supply the power stations with the amounts needed. That did not turn out to be the case.

The governments have also ignored the impact a rational price regime for electricity would have had on total demand and its distribution among different users. Demand increased significantly in the 2000s. The rate of growth was estimated at seven per cent a year compared to four per cent in the 1990s and 11 per cent in the 1980s. The price regime subsidised household consumption at the expense of industry and the modern service sectors. Accordingly, the share of household demand in the last decade doubled from 23 per cent of the total in 1980-81 to 46 per cent in 2007-08.

The government headed by President Pervez Musharraf miscalculated the demandelasticity for power, assuming that the high rate of growth in the first few years of its tenure would not translate into an even larger rate of increase in the demand for electricity. No significant new investments were made to generate additional power and the supply-demand gap continued to widen. The share of public sector expenditure on the power sector which averaged about 28 per cent of the total in the two decades before the Musharraf period declined to less than three per cent while he was in office.

Then there was confusion on the institutional side. In the late 1990s, the World Bank used its lending programme of several hundred million dollars for the power sector to persuade the government to reorganise the Water and Power and Development Authority. According to the plan drawn up by the Bank and accepted by Pakistan, the authority was to be split up into several smaller units responsible separately for hydro-power, thermal power, transmission and distribution.

This structure reflected the thinking in development circles at that time according to which even natural monopolies such as the entities responsible for power distribution were to be run as for-profit corporate bodies.

A new regulatory agency looking after all these new organisations and also fixing tariffs at various levels – from generation to transmission, from transmission to distribution and from distribution to final consumers – was set up. This restructuring has been done in a halfhearted way. The result is considerable institutional confusion. In the meanwhile some experts at the World Bank have begun to think that integrated systems as Wapda was at one point may not, after all, be a bad way of running the power sector.

The conclusion one should reach from this quick overview is that the power sector development in Pakistan has suffered from government neglect.

This also happened in several other sectors in which shortages critical inputs for the economy have appeared. Islamabad should take a careful look at the current situation and put in place a policy framework that would be consistent with the demands of a growing economy and would also take cognisance of the resources available in the country for power generation.

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Energy crisis: some options

Posted on June 23, 2011. Filed under: Energy crisis, Pakistan |

NOT a day passes when we do not hear of serious agitation against power shutdowns in every province of the country, not to mention anything regarding the gas shortage in industries. However, nothing is being done to improve the situation.

The real problem is affording the high costs of power and since the government is unable to pay higher subsidies, how does it expect commoners to pay such steep amounts by transferring it to them.

These are not power shortages but, in fact, deliberate power cuts.

Simply put, we cannot afford to operate most of our furnace oil power plants as there is no money to pay for the fuel. It is the high cost of power production that is ‘forcing’ us to operate only 13,000 to 14,000 MW power plants when we have a capacity for 20,000 MW ones.

In the late 90s, new power plants were being ‘financially engineered’ and every time the future problem of high furnace oil costs was raised, the planners avoided providing any answers, as many people became billionaires in approving and setting up these inefficient and polluting power plants with built-in mechanisms to create the exorbitant costs of power that we have to bear today.

While we drown ourselves in the never-ending misery of high costs of power, let us see what the world is doing?

The International Energy Agency in its latest ‘Technology Roadmap’ (May 16) shows how efficient technologies can change the energy scenario substantially. Just one technology application of combined heat and power (or cogeneration) in buildings will reach about 747 GWe by 2050, about 45 times greater than today’s level which is already accepted as the norm in most European and Japanese buildings.

We have clear directives at the highest level to ensure that natural gas is only sanctioned to cogeneration systems in industries and commercial buildings. But then what good is such a directive if there are other ways to bypass it? It is worst when a ministrysponsored Building Energy Code of Pakistan totally ignores the major energy source, fuelling every sector of the economy.

The latest ‘Energy Code’ has no section on natural gas or LPG and thus has nothing to offer in terms of efficient and safe utilisation of gas in buildings. The so-called Pakistan Energy Code has been simply copied from foreign standards and since it is not normal for a building in the United States to have efficient gas-based power and central air-conditioning systems, we (slaves that we are) should also follow the same energy code! What really takes the cake is the provision of accepting inefficient absorption-type central air-conditioning plants in our latest Energy Code. Even now urgent corrective action will greatly help in avoiding unaffordable power generation with furnace oil by making available thousands of MW of low-cost power from CHP/Cogen Systems if we only provide proper incentives for industries and commercial buildings.

Are we up to this challenge for the sake of the country’s future?

AAZA Karachi

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Power riots spread after consumers receive ‘inflated’ bills

Posted on June 22, 2011. Filed under: Energy crisis, Pakistan, Tariff, Wapda / KESC |

KARACHI, June 21: While many city areas continued to remain without electricity for most part of the day, residents and traders staged demonstrations to protest against the Karachi Electric Supply Company after they received “inflated” bills on Tuesday.

Power riots spread to Jodia Bazaar, Old Golimar, Gadap, North Karachi, Korangi, Landhi, Lyari and other localities, where people blocked roads by setting tyres on fire. Contingents of police and Rangers were called in to control the crowds at some places. Street protests against frequent power breakdowns have also been planned for Friday.

Amid the demonstrations, many influential segments of society have started appealing to the people not to pay their monthly power utility bills and to resist the power utility if it launched a disconnection drive.

Several protesters complained that they had been suffering up to 14 hours of loadshedding daily and yet they received bills with power dues twice the amount they had paid last month.

Some of them said the KESC sent inflated bills without meter reading and that the management should stop blaming workers for its poor service.

People staged a protest demonstration against power outages in Jodia Bazaar and shouted slogans against the KESC management. They lit a bonfire and smashed everything inside it with great ferocity. Traders and residents of the Bolton Market and Napier Road areas also staged protests. Residents of Old Golimar and adjoining areas were equally enraged. They blocked traffic by setting fire to old tyres.

A resident of North Karachi’s Sector 7D3 was among the thousands of KESC consumers who had received inflated electricity bills on June 20. He claimed that electricity charges for one month to be paid by June 25 were three times that of the pre vious bill. “The June 2011 bill, with normal charging mode status, carrying a meter reading of 28952 as of June 1 requires me to pay Rs5,700 for consuming 557 units,” he said. In fact, the meter reading on June 21 was 28771, he added.

A visit to the recently relocated billing office of KESC North Karachi Zone on Tuesday was not productive. Half of the staff was standing outside and the rest was showing least interest in helping the consumers who had gathered there to get their bills corrected.

No senior official was sitting at the office and some officials were discouraging the visitors, saying that bill correction was not possible. The officials were quoted as saying that people should better pay the bills as Nepra had allowed 79 paisa fuel adjustment for the months of April and May and its impact would be shown in the next bill.

Online bills While the power crisis deepened with prolonged outages and unattended faults blamed by the KESC management on workers’ protest, monthly bills remained undelivered in many areas.

In this situation, the KESC management advised people who had not received monthly electricity bills around their usual time to use alternative online arrangements for payment of bills.

The KESC spokesperson said that it had introduced five easy methods for the convenience of customers besides the normal way of using printed bills. First, people could visit the utility’s official website and enter the 13-digit account number to retrieve duplicate copies of the current electricity bills, which could be printed and presented at all banks for making payment. Secondly, people could go to the offices of Nadra, NIB Bank branches, Easy Paisa outlets, UBL Omni Banking and 1Link ATMs, and present the 13-digit account number. These outlets would retrieve bill details and provide a payment receipt of the bill to the customer. Thirdly, the customers who did not receive their monthly bills, could phone the KESC call centre 118 and follow the automated system to retrieve a duplicate copy of the bill. Fourthly, people could email 13-digit account number to receive an online copy of their bill, which could be used for payment. Fifthly, people familiar with online payment could use their existing online banking services as most banks provided the facility for payment of utility bills.

Workers The protesting labour union of the KESC rejected the alternative ‘facility’ for bills payment and said the management did not assure people of enhanced power supply. The labour union asked the government and the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority to take notice of the KESC management’s high-handedness and complete apathy towards people’s problems and needs.

A few consumers whom Dawn spoke to were furious at the management’s measures saying that their major concern was resumption of normal power supply.

They said the KESC had not been recording the actual meter reading while with this move the power utility had attempted to absolve itself of delivering the bills on time.

Protest call The Jamaat-i-Islami Karachi chapter has announced that June 24 would be observed as a protest day against the increasing hours of power loadshedding and tariff hike.

A party’s handout said that power outages had affected the commercial and industrial businesses. The demonstrations would be staged on roads and at roundabouts. The main protest would be staged at Lasbela Chowk, the handout stated.

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Four IPPs withdraw final notices on payment of Rs. 5 billion

Posted on June 22, 2011. Filed under: Energy crisis, Finance, IPPs, Pakistan, PEPCO |

ISLAMABAD, June 21: Four independent power producers (IPPs) decided on Tuesday to withdraw their final notices seeking encashment of sovereign guarantees after they were paid Rs5 billion and assured that the remaining dues will be cleared before June 30.

An agreement to that effect was reached after negotiations between Water and Power Minister Syed Naveed Qamar and a delegation of IPPs, led by Mian Mohammad Mansha and Yousaf H. Shirazi.

The IPPs — Nishat Power and Nishat Chunian of Mian Mansha, Atlas Power of Yousaf Shirazi and Liberty Tech — with a combined capacity of 880MW had issued the final notice on June 15 to call sovereign guarantees and stop production because of non-payment of dues against electricity they had supplied to Pakistan Electric Power Company (Pepco).

According to sources, the IPPs initially took a strong position not to withdraw the notices till the clearance of full payment, but agreed to oblige on upfront payment of Rs5 billion and commitment for the release of Rs3.25 billion before June 30.

The IPPs were told that their claim of about Rs10 billion also involved about Rs2 billion still-tobecome-overdue bills under contractual obligations.

The sources said the crisis had been averted after Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani approved last week a power ministry’s summary seeking payment of Rs11 billion for the IPPs. The remaining amount of Rs2.75 billion will be paid to some other distressed IPPs.

An official was of the opinion that the notices had automatically become ‘infructuous’ after the partial payment of dues. But an IPP representative said that was not the case, adding that the IPPs would have to write formal letters to banks informing them about their decision not to go ahead with encashment. Otherwise, he added, the banks were bound under the law to pay the quoted amount on behalf of the government on June 23. He said withdrawal letters would reach the banks on Wednesday.

On Saturday, the power ministry wrote a letter to the prime minister and requested him to personally intervene for releasing Rs11 billion urgently to contain the crisis and avoid international embarrassment. Till May 15, the government owed about Rs122 billion to all IPPs.

Under its sovereign commitment, the government is bound to make payments to IPPs if their power purchaser, Pepco/Wapda, fails to clear dues. The failure to make payments by the government after a 30-day notice is technically considered as ‘sovereign default’ which leads to negative ramifications for the country’s credit ratings and interest costs.

The IPPs served the first 30-day notice on the government on May 13 to start the process of calling sovereign guarantee for recovering their combined power dues of Rs16.5 billion. In response to the notice, the NTDC/Pepco released about Rs6 billion, but delayed payment of the remaining amount because of financial problems.

Despite an estimated payment of about Rs296 billion in subsidy to Wapda/Pepco during the current financial year against a budgetary allocation of Rs84 billion, the entire power sector, including private companies, was facing serious financial problems because of continuous increase in outstanding dues, resulting in lower than required fuel purchases and compounding electricity shortfall.

The government has picked up more than Rs300 billion arrears from power companies’ balance sheets and parked the amount into a newly-created Power Holding Company and raised almost an equivalent amount from banks to improve the power sector’s cash flows.

The government paid Rs40 billion alone as interest against these loans out of the federal budget and the amount is expected to reach Rs56 billion during the next financial year.

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Cut your electricity bill upto 30%

Posted on June 21, 2011. Filed under: Energy crisis, Pakistan |

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10 million using solar power, NA told

Posted on June 21, 2011. Filed under: Alternative, Energy crisis, Pakistan, Solar |

ISLAMABAD, June 18: Federal Minister for Water and Power Syed Naveed Qamar informed the National Assembly on Saturday that the number of people consuming solar energy in the country had increased to 10 million, adding that recently 4,500 houses in Dalbandin (Balochistan) and Tharparker (Sindh) had been energised with solar power.

Answering a calling-attention notice raised by Syed Zafar Ali Shah, Bushra Gohar, Jamila Gilani and other members about non-supply of solar power for domestic use, he said it was an incorrect impression that the government was not paying attention to the solar energy option.The country had great potential for solar energy generation, he added.

The minister assured the house that the private sector would be encouraged for promotion of solar energy. “We will also encourage import of solar panels.” The minister said the Alternative Energy Development Board planned to provide solar panels to 1,500 houses initially, adding the government would support any step proposed by parliamentarians desiring to utilise his/her funds for supplying solar energy to people.

He said some NGOs had energised 485 houses in Fata and another 2,000 in AJK so far. At present solar panels in the country were being manufactured on a small scale, he added.

Speaker Fehmida Mirza observed that electricity could be saved by switching small villages and street lights over to solar energy.—APP

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Public limited company for KBD proposed

Posted on June 21, 2011. Filed under: Energy crisis, Hydal, Pakistan |

LAHORE, June 18: The Institution of Engineers Pakistan has urged the politicians not to intervene in technical matters like Kalabagh Dam which are essential for development of the country.

“Remember, if we fail now in making decision on Kalabagh Dam immediately, the coming generations are not going to forgive the present regimes,” said a resolution unanimously adopted at the 46th annual general body meeting of the IEP on Saturday.

It said the government had been unable to generate electricity in spite of having capacity to meet the total demand as major power houses were based on thermal fuel.

“To avoid heavy loss and crippling the country just on the threats of a few politicians, the only immediate solution lies in the announcement by the government to construct Kalabagh Dam on top priority basis,” said the resolution presented by IEP Lahore Vice-Chairman Syed Khalid Sajjad.

“The Kalabagh Dam is going to take five years in completion at a cost of $5 billion providing water for irrigation to all the provinces, controlling flood and providing electricity at a minimum cost of Re1 per unit up to minimum of 3,500MW. The project being right in the middle of load centre will have negligible cost of transmission.

“The next alternative is to construct hydel power stations on Bhasha Dam through Bunji tunnel which, however, are going to take 15 to 25 years with an investment of $15 to 25 billion for each project which will provide around 5,000 to 8,000MW each.

“Another hydel station under study on Neelum-Jhelum project is also a viable solution but will produce around 1,000MW only but can only be constructed not before five years and without having much capacity for accumulation of irrigation water.

“The politicians are requested to leave technical matters for decisions and implementation by the engineers being technical experts.

“Since government is short of funds because it has levied heavy taxation on furnace oil, diesel, petrol etc for use in thermal power houses and transportation industries belonging to public as well as private sector and have not cleared the bills of the Pakistan State Oil through collection of monthly revenue from consumers.

“The revenue collected by the government was much less than the cost of fuel imported and as such had entered in a circulate debt.

“The government should immediately set up Kalabagh Dam construction company on public-private partnership basis, having its stakeholders from all the provinces of Pakistan, to undertake the responsibilities of arranging funds by selling its shares in open market, finding solutions and arranging compensations to the people who are supposed to be the loser due to construction of the dam, reconciling the differences and developing harmony among the provinces, creating healthy atmosphere for construction of KBD, convincing and removing the apprehension of political, technical and general public of all the provinces in the larger interest of the country,” concluded the resolution.

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IPPs’ threat to invoke sovereign guarantees: Gilani urged to immediately release Rs11bn

Posted on June 20, 2011. Filed under: Energy crisis, IPPs |

With people having to brave an average of 10 hours of loadshedding daily, the ministry of water and power has requested Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani to release Rs11 billion urgently to bring the power crisis under manageable levels and avoid international embarrassment.

A senior official told Dawn on Sunday the power ministry had forwarded on Saturday a summary to the finance ministry and the prime minister secretariat seeking an immediate release of Rs11 billion to get maximum number of independent power producers (IPPs) back into production and avoid encashment of sovereign guarantees.

Officials said that non-payment of dues to the IPPs was not a big issue but encashment of government guarantees could affect the country’s reputation at the international level at a time when it was launching about $500 million worth of international bonds against 10 per cent shares of its largest oil and gas producer – the Oil and Gas Development Company.

An official said that Water and Power Minister Syed Naveed Qamar had also talked to the prime minister and the finance minister for early resolution of the payment issue.

The power shortfall that was 4,000MW till recent days increased to about 5,500MW on Saturday due to some disruption at the Zamzama gas field. The supply from the gas field has partially resumed but it will take a couple of days to normalise full production from the power plants.

Non-payment of dues by power firms to oil companies, particularly the Pakistan State Oil, had resulted in short supply of fuel oil, they said.

A demand-supply gap of 500MW normally translates into the countrywide loadshedding of one hour. That means the current 5,500MW of shortfall is on an average causing about 11 hours of loadshedding. However, in an attempt to ensure maximum power supply to the industrial sector, influential localities and major cities, consumers living in far-flung and rural areas are subjected to lengthy shutdowns – at times exceeding 16 hours a day.

Officials said the power sec tor’s normal fuel requirement was about 28,000 tons but it was getting a maximum of 23,000 tons per day, due to capacity constraints at Karachi ports and short payments.

As a result of continuing technical defaults, at least four IPPs have started the legal and financial process to call sovereign guarantees of the government on inability of power companies to make payment against the electricity they have purchased.

Under the power purchase agreements, the government or its public sector entities have less than 10 days after the IPPs’ final notice to make payment or its sovereign guarantees are encashed by the banks. The deadline ends on Friday and the power ministry expects the release of Rs11 billion to the IPPs latest by Wednesday.

It is the second time in the country’s history that private power producers have invoked sovereign guarantees for recovering their dues, although non-payments have almost become a routine in the energy sector, owing to an ever-deepening circular debt crisis.

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15 items used in CNG compressors made duty free

Posted on June 17, 2011. Filed under: Energy crisis, Natural Gas |

JUNE 17, 2011


Fifteen items used in the manufacturing of CNG compressors would be subject to zero percent customs duty, which includes electric motor, piston pins, rods, rings and water flow switch. Sources told Business Recorder here on Thursday that prior to budget (2011-2012) import of 10 items used in the manufacture of CNG compressors were allowed at zero percent duty.

On the recommendations of the Engineering Development Board (EDB), the existing list is being substituted with 15 new items at the same rate of 0% duty by amending SRO 565(1)/2006.

List of items used in manufacturing of CNG compressors, subjected to zero-percent customs duty included bearings Pakistan Customs Tariff (PCT) Code 8482.4000, 8482.2000; geared pump, 8413.8110, valves, 8481.3000, 8481.4000; forced feed lubricator pump, 8413.8190; pressure and temperature gauges, 9026.2000; electric motor, 8501.5310, 8501.5290; junction box glands, 8536.3000; oil filter assembly, 8414.9090; flexible pressure hoses, 4009, 2190; SS tubes/ pipes, 7304.4100, 7306.9000; aluminium bars 6082.7075, T-6, 7604.2910; connecting rods forged 8.5 kg, 8414.9090; piston pins, rods, rings, 8414.9090; flexible water hose (SS braided), 4009.1190 and water flow switch falling under PCT heading 9026.1000 would be subject to zero percent customs duty. The incentive for CNG compressors industry was announced in budget (2011-2012), sources added.

Copyright Business Recorder, 2011

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